Noninvasive Optical Diagnostic Techniques for Mobile Blood Glucose and Bilirubin Monitoring

Bahare Javid, Faranak FotouhiGhazvini, Fahime Sadat Zakeri


Background: People with diabetes need to monitor their blood sugar levels constantly and attend
health centers regularly for checkups. The aim of this study is to provide a healthcare system for
mobile blood glucose and bilirubin monitoring. Methods: It includes a sensor for noninvasive
blood glucose and bilirubin measurement using near‑infrared spectroscopy and optical method,
respectively, communicating with a smartphone. Results: It was observed that by increasing the
glucose concentration, the output voltage of the sensor increases in transmittance mode and decreases
in reflectance mode. Moreover, it was observed that by increasing the bilirubin concentration, the
output voltage of sensor decreases in transmittance mode and increases in reflectance mode. In the
collected data there was good correlations between voltage and concentration and their relationship
were approximately linear. Therefore, it is possible to use noninvasive methods to predict the glucose
or bilirubin concentration. In vivo experiments for glucose were carried out with 19 persons in
training phase, and fve persons were used for testing the model. The glucose behavior model was
built into the mobile application. The average glucose concentrations from the transmittance and
reflectance mode were obtained. The average percentage error was 8.27 and root mean square error
was 18.52 mg/dL. Conclusions: From this research, it can be inferred that the noninvasive optical
methods implemented on wireless sensors and smartphones could form a system that can be used
at any time and any place in the future as an alternative to traditional invasive blood glucose and
bilirubin measurement methods.

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