Designing an Inverter‑based Operational Transconductance Amplifer‑capacitor Filter with Low Power Consumption for Biomedical Applications

sajad yousefinezhad, saeed kermani, saeed Hosseinnia


The operational transconductance amplifer‑capacitor (OTA‑C) flter is one of the best structures for
implementing continuous‑time flters. It is particularly important to design a universal OTA‑C flter
capable of generating the desired flter response via a single structure, thus reducing the flter circuit
power consumption as well as noise and the occupied space on the electronic chip. In this study,
an inverter‑based universal OTA‑C flter with very low power consumption and acceptable noise
was designed with applications in bioelectric and biomedical equipment for recording biomedical
signals. The very low power consumption of the proposed flter was achieved through introducing
bias in subthreshold MOSFET transistors. The proposed flter is also capable of simultaneously
receiving favorable low‑, band‑, and high‑pass flter responses. The performance of the proposed
flter was simulated and analyzed via HSPICE software (level 49) and 180 nm complementary
metal‑oxide‑semiconductor technology. The rate of power consumption and noise obtained from
simulations are 7.1 nW and 10.18 nA, respectively, so this flter has reduced noise as well as power
consumption. The proposed universal OTA‑C flter was designed based on the minimum number of
transconductance blocks and an inverter circuit by three transconductance blocks (OTA).

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