Markerless Respiratory Tumor Motion Prediction Using an Adaptive Neuro‑fuzzy Approach

Nima Rostampour, Keyvan Jabbari, Mahdad Esmaeili, Mohammad Mohammadi, Shahabedin Nabavi


Background: Accurate delivery of the prescribed dose to moving lung tumors is a key challenge
in radiation therapy. Tumor tracking involves real‑time specifying the target and correcting the
geometry to compensate for the respiratory motion, that’s why tracking the tumor requires caution.
This study aims to develop a markerless lung tumor tracking method with a high accuracy.
Materials and Methods: In this study, four‑dimensional computed tomography (4D‑CT) images
of 10 patients were used, and all the slices which contained the tumor were contoured for all
patients. The frst four phases of 4D‑CT images which contained tumors were selected as input of
the software, and the next six phases were considered as the output. A hybrid intelligent method,
adaptive neuro‑fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), was used to evaluate motion of lung tumor. The
root mean square error (RMSE) was used to investigate the accuracy of ANFIS performance for
tumor motion prediction. Results: For predicting the positions of contoured tumors, the averages
of RMSE for each patient were calculated for all the patients. The results showed that the RMSE
did not have a major variation. Conclusions: The data in the 4D‑CT images were used for motion
tracking instead of using markers that lead to more information of tumor motion with respect to
methods based on marker location.


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